Over the last thirty years with UNICEF in Asia, I have encountered the phenomena of child marriage and early marriage on numerous occasions. Why does child marriage happen? child marriage is very high in Zambia. Reasons responsible for Child Marriages The discrimination against women begins from womb and ends with tomb. Child Marriages in India The Red Elephant Foundation December 2013 e 4 Introduction Child marriage refers to the marriage of a child younger than 18 years old,1 in accordance to Article 1 of the Convention on the Right of the Child. This in turns reduces the ability of households to meet their basic needs, and thereby contributes to poverty. We all know that Nigeria is a poor country, and most people who live in the rural areas are struggling to survive. Gender Inequalities in the society. CONTEXT AND CAUSES 17. revalence of child marriage in Africa2.1 P 19 2.1.1 Overview 19 2.1.2 Prevalence by country 21 2.2 Causes of child marriage in Africa 25 2.2.1 Gender inequality 25 2.2.2 Cultural and religious norms that promote . all underlying causes of child marriage, but one must be aware of the specific circumstances in the particular areas. The primary reasons for such high rates of child marriage were found to be lack of access to education, economic opportunity, and health services, particularly for girls, alongside severe poverty and weak legal and enforcement mechanism. To gain an in-depth understanding of both the causes and the effects of child marriage in Garowe District, the researcher conducted a retrospective study which looks back in time to explore the push and the pull factors behind child marriage in Garowe. Child marriage as a concept can be defined as the formal or an informal union between two individuals before attaining the age of eighteen years. Child marriage is a human rights violation. Despite laws against it, child marriage remains widespread in part because of … One in three girls is married before reaching age 18 and one in nine is married under the age of 15. At its heart, child marriage is rooted in gender inequality and the belief that girls and women are somehow inferior to boys and men. Child marriage is associated with higher rates of death resulting from childbirth, unwanted pregnancies, pregnancy termination and malnutrition in the offspring. Early marriage is the marriage of children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Poverty, lack of education, cultural practices, and insecurity fuel and sustain the practice. The elimination of child marriage by 2030 is a target under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Each year, 15 million girls are married before the age of 18, and that number is growing. Child marriage is widely considered as a violation of . Although child marriage has declined by 25% from 41.6% to 31.4% among women aged 20–24 who report being married before they were 18 years old (see Figure 1), it is still among the highest in the world. Some of the causes of early marriage in Nigeria include conflict, poverty, religion, and tradition. digest Early Marriage: Child Spouses in 2001, exploring both the reasons behind the perpetuation of child marriage and its harmful impact. The highest proportions of child brides are typically found in West Africa and South Asia (see Table 1 for some regional hotspots of child marriage). Economic or financial inability of the family. This was followed by Section II details the reality of forced and early marriage, including the causes, risk factors, and consequences of these practices. The leading cause of forced/early marriage is gender inequality, In the least developed countries, that number doubles – 40 per cent of girls are married before age 18, and 12 per cent of girls are married before age 15. Effects of … cause for celebration. or perpetuate child marriage 26 2.2.3 Poverty 29 2.2.4 Lack of access to education 32 Complex teenage psychology can results an immature and irresponsible behaviour which in turn may be another cause of teenage pregnancy. Ending child marriage would generate large welfare benefits through a reduction in population growth, helping to usher in the demographic dividend. When the 1921 census reported 600 brides in the age group of one to twelve months, Mahatma Gandhi was shocked. worldwide the incidence of child marriage … Despite laws against it, the practice remains widespread: Globally, one in every five girls is married, or in union, before reaching age 18. There is great variation in child marriage practices across and within regions and between ethnic and religious groups. Poverty, often cited as the main cause for child marriage in some countries where the practice is of much more prominence, may not be the main reason for it to enjoy its legal status here in Malaysia. Research on child marriage conducted by PLAN International (2015) in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia found that the objection of young people to child marriage was considered to cause disharmony, conflicts Low status of women. Marriage before the age of 18 is a fundamental violation of human rights. Keywords: Child marriage, Niger, Chad, Social norms! All too often, the imposition of a marriage partner upon a child means that a girl or boy’s childhood is cut short and their fundamental rights are com-promised. Custom, Traditional beliefs and social mind-set. 2006 DHS data). Child marriage affects both boys and girls, but disproportionately affects girls. The discrimination reflects in their education, family, socio political spheres, employment and work place. Child marriage continues to be a challenge worldwide and especially in southern Asia and Africa. human rights and a form of violence against girls. Essay on Child Marriage in India – Causes, Effects and Prevention (Essay 4 – 400 Words) Introduction: Child Marriage in India is a centuries old tradition. Sure, most of the young age marriages happen in the poorer areas, mainly rural ones. Illiteracy. Child marriage is a complex issue. causes and consequences of child marriage in any particular order; however, in compiling the tables, all the responses were listed first and then ranked by the total mention each response item received from the five groups (please see Annexures 3 & 4 for the causes and consequences). divorce, there are indications that child marriage contributes to divorce rates in Indonesia. This institution should be seen as an abuse of human rights since this is one form of a forced marriage. Child marriage is likely the cause of more than half of births of children from mothers younger than 18 Ending child marriage could reduce early childbearing for girls and early childbirths for children by half Impacts of child marriage and early childbearing on girls’ educational attainment • The prevalence of forced/child marriage depends on the social, cultural, and political context of a society. Child marriage often occurs in the shadows of poverty and gender inequality, impeding efforts to empower girls and boys and achieve long-term, sustainable development. Child marriage customs, a situation whereby children are given into marriage well before they attain puberty occur all over the world particularly in Africa, Asia, and South America. We see child marriage as an act of violence, so we enable girls to assert their rights, help families and communities to support them, and influence policy to sustain change. Child marriage is any formal marriage or informal union where one or both parties are under 18 years of age. Child marriage leads girls to have children earlier and more children over their lifetime. What is Child Marriage, its Concepts and Causes of Child Marriage. Child marriage is a marriage or similar union, formal or informal, between a child and an adult or another child under a certain age, typically age eighteen. It is both a symptom and a cause of ongoing development challenges, as the practice of … So, the main causes of child marriage are: Poverty in the country. While it affects both sexes, girls are more affected as they are the majority of the victims. 6 Early and Child Marriage in India | fiffflffifi1ffifl 1fl-—1 To fully understand the causes of early and child marriage and create solutions requires an in-depth understanding of issues of gender, education, sexuality, livelihood and culture. Yet investments to end the practice are limited, and . Conclusions regarding underlying factors and correlations are further to be found and presented in the text. Eradicating child marriage has long been on the agenda of the Intervention Phase 1 (2013-2017) Tipping Point is a multi-country initiative addressing child marriage by focusing on its root causes. Many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage, including poverty, the perception that marriage will provide ‘protection’, family honor, social norms, customary or religious laws that condone the practice, an inadequate legislative framework and the state of a country’s civil registration system. Causes of Child Marriage. The child marriage system is also a … In several culture girls are forced to be married at a very early age due to various reasons such as getting dowry, the fear of some parents that their daughters would get pregnant while at home. Poverty and lack of education increase child marriage. Each of the factors connected to early and child marriage cannot be understood in isolation. The vast majority of child marriages are between a girl and a man, and are rooted in gender inequality. Developing relational alliances amid families for other business or financial upholds. Child marriage in Africa often ends a girl’s education, exposes her to domestic violence and grave health risks from early childbearing and HIV, and traps her in poverty, Human Rights Watch … In many developing countries, the practice of child marriage is illegal—yet it still thrives. According to Patrick (2010), the transition from childhood to teenage may cause unstable emotions to some teenagers, and this may cause complex teenage psychology break on teenagers. The country is upper-middle income level and has its Gross National Income per capita ranked higher than India, Bangladesh and Nigeria in 2015. Child … According to the 2013–14 ZDHS, child marriage affects more girls than boys— CHILD MARRIAGE IN ZAMBIA

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