Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Irrigated crops need an average of 80 cm (about 30 inches) of water annually. Desertification usually happens in semi-arid areas that border deserts. E- Armenias economy was based largely on industry, until independence. 0% average accuracy. Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization. 2.3 Overpopulation ... increasing desertification that encroaches into arable land, over-fishing of the oceans, mass extinction of species, air and water pollution, and anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change. Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing. They call themselves “hay” and refer to Armenia as “Hayastan” or “Hayasdan”. Food security. desertification The encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins, where plant cover and soils are threatened by desiccation--through overuse, in part by humans and their domestic animals, and, possibly, in part because of inexorable shifts in … One-third of Africa’s drylands are largely uninhabited arid deserts, while the remaining two-thirds support two-thirds of the continent’s burgeoning human population. The first major periods of agricultural diffusion were among the most dramatic changes in human history, but this doesn't mean that innovations stopped back in the Neolithic period. Free AP Human Geography practice problem - Conservation Efforts. Desertification AP Human Geography - Varsity Tutors. Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer. In addition, the delegates considered the varied consequences of desertification, such as crop failures or decreased yields in rain-fed farmland, the loss of perennial plant cover and thus loss of forage for livestock, reduced woody biomass and thus scarcity of fuelwood and building materials, a decrease in potable water stocks from reductions in surface water and groundwater flow, increased sand dune intrusion onto croplands and settlements, increased flooding due to rising sedimentation in rivers and lakes, and amplified air and water pollution from dust and sedimentation. Rice planted on dryland in a nursery, then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth. John P. Rafferty writes about Earth processes and the environment. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Learn faster with spaced repetition. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Hydraulic civilization, according to the theories of the German-American historian Karl A. Wittfogel, any culture having an agricultural system that is dependent upon large-scale government-managed waterworks—productive (for irrigation) and protective (for flood control). Includes score reports and progress tracking. The plants and animals diffused to a region with climate and geography similar to that of their point of domestication. The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. Question #173519. You often hear about temperature changes, sea level rising, and shifting climate zones. Demography and Population Geography 3. Desertification Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Free AP Human Geography practice problem - Irrigation. AP Human Geography Agriculture DRAFT. A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Desertification, also called desertization, the process by which natural or human causes reduce the biological productivity of drylands (arid and semiarid lands). Historical Geography 2. Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides. About 2,000 years ago, 80 percent of Western Europe was forested; today the figure is 34 … By definition, desertification is “the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture ”. The countries that lie on the edge of the Sahara are among the poorest in the world, and they are subject to periodic droughts that devastate their peoples. Wittfogel advanced the Definition: Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Most salt-degraded cropland occurs in Asia and southwestern North America, which account for 75 and 15 percent of the worldwide total, respectively. Desertification. Human activities are a primary cause of desertification. In general, desertification is caused by variations in climate and by unsustainable land-management practices in dryland environments. To better understand how climatic changes and human activities contribute to the process of desertification, the consequences listed above can be grouped into four broad areas: Nearly 2,750,000 square km (about 1,062,000 square miles) of croplands are irrigated. Land degradation is in turn defined as the reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity of drylands. Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season. answer choices When used to irrigate crops, runoff evaporates and leaves behind much of the salts that it collected. The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain. Extensive human migration has a long history. Essentially, rainwater is distilled seawater or lake water. The concept does not refer to the physical expansion of existing deserts but rather to the various processes that threaten all dryland ecosystems, including deserts as well as grasslands and scrublands. To beat out grain from stalks by trampling it. A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country. A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period. On the other hand, plants and animals are quick to take advantage of wetter periods, and productivity can rapidly increase during these times. Since dryland environments are used for a variety of human purposes (such as agriculture, animal grazing, and fuelwood collection), the various activities undertaken in them can exacerbate the problem of desertification and bring about lasting changes to dryland ecosystems. In contrast, water used for irrigation is the result of runoff from precipitation. Agriculture designed primarily to proved food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family. “Desertification” is the name given to the process by which previously fertile agricultural lands are made infertile made by human practices. our editorial process. stewart_massey_57994. Example: Slash and Burn promotes desertification Application: Desertification destroys soil and ultimately makes it useless for years(until the nutrients are replenished) The main cause of declining biological productivity in irrigated croplands is the accumulation of salts in the soil. 1. Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants. Omissions? Declines in productivity may be the result of climate change , deforestation , overgrazing, poverty , political instability, unsustainable irrigation practices, or combinations of these factors. Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris. Study CASE STUDY 9 : DESERTIFICATION CASE STUDY - SAHEL flashcards from Luke O'Mahoney's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. College Board’s Advanced Placement® Program (AP®) enables willing and academically prepared students to pursue college-level studies—with the opportunity to earn college credit, advanced placement, or both—while still in high school. Introduction to Human Geography. Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers. While interpretations of the term desertification vary, the concern centers on human-caused land degradation in areas with low or variable rainfall known as … The definition of desertification itself is controversial. Modern Diffusion. Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations. A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) notes that desertification has affected 36 million square km (14 million square miles) of land and is a major international concern. “Salinization,” which refers to the buildup of salt deposits through irrigation and evaporation, is an example of desertification. Africa is the continent most affected by desertification, and one of the most obvious natural borders on the landmass is the southern edge of the Sahara desert. A person, a household or even a country has assured access to enough food at all times to ensure active and healthy lives. Desalinization definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Human Geography. Deforestation is the purposeful clearing of forested land. ... Desertification . The modern definition of agriculture includes. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Such changes may be temporary, lasting only a season, or they may persist over many years and decades. These salts can build up in the soil unless additional water is used to flush them out. Desert Definition and Characteristics Arid Lands and Deserts Lose More Water Than They Gain. Question #203253. First Agricultural Revolution; Questions; Summary. Solonchak soil profile from China, showing a surface horizon with high salt accumulation. Runoff percolates through the soil, dissolving and collecting much of the salts it encounters, before finding its way into rivers or aquifers. Updates? For example, since 1993, the One common form that migration takes is chain migration., Study Flashcards On AP Human Geography Chapter 3 at Cram.com. A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area. We live in a world where climate change is often a hot topic of discussion. Human (or Cultural) Geography is the study of the spatial differentiation and organization of human activity on the earth’s surface. The United Nations’ official definition says desertification is land degradation in typically dry areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. Of the irrigated dryland, 30 percent (an area roughly the size of Japan) is moderately to severely degraded, and this percentage is increasing. Thus, climatic changes such as those that result in extended droughts can rapidly reduce the biological productivity of those ecosystems. A woman in Nigeria pouring grains of millet into a bowl in the village of Sadongori Kolita, near Maradi. Currently suffering due to the blockade along the borders and cannot get the supplies and raw materials it needs to be based on industry. Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer. A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning. Desertification Desertification is the process of productive cropland turning into non-productive, desert-like environments. The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures. The word invokes images of sand dunes blowing over abandoned farms as some irresistible, dark force steadily transforms fertile fields into inhospitable wasteland. AP Human Geography - The First Agricultural Revolution. When we talk about geography, a lot of people automatically think about the locations of rivers, capitals of states, those sorts of things. Corrections? 3 hours ago. Low rainfall and locusts caused a food crisis during the summer of 2005. S- Armenian is the official language (Indo-European) and Russian is the second official language. Political Geography: nations, boundaries, geopolitics, military movements, treaties, devolution, choke points, and imperialism 4. This process can rapidly transform productive land into relatively barren salt flats scattered with halophytes (plants adapted to high levels of salt in the soil). He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... Young trees planted to hinder sandstorms and reverse desertification in the Xihu preservation area of the Gobi Desert, near Dunhuang, China. Through AP courses in 38 subjects, each culminating in a … 9th - 12th grade. In Russia, much of the irrigated land located where the Volga River runs into the Caspian Sea may last only until the middle of the 21st century before the buildup of salts makes it virtually unusable. chain migration.. African drylands (which include the Sahara, the Kalahari, and the grasslands of East Africa) span 20 million square km (about 7.7 million square miles), some 65 percent of the continent. All of these things have economic and environmental costs that we must consider. Declines in productivity may be the result of climate change, deforestation, overgrazing, poverty, political instability, unsustainable irrigation practices, or combinations of these factors. Includes score reports and progress tracking. System of planting crops on ridge tops, in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation. Definition; Adaptive strategies: ... soil erosion, desertification) The destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming. 0. Groundwater is a valuable resource both in the United States and throughout the world. According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the lives of 250 million people are affected by desertification, and as many as 135 million people may be displaced by desertification by 2045, making it one of the most severe environmental challenges facing humanity. Desertification. Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing. There is an important difference between rainwater and the water used for dryland irrigation. The First Agricultural Revolution was the transition of humans from nomadic hunting/gathering to sedentary agricultural production of domesticated plants and animals. Dry woodlands, which are plagued by the overconsumption of fuelwood. As Africa’s population increases, the productivity of the land supporting this population declines. However, something that we don't hear so much about is that over recent years there has been an The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. Desertification, also called desertization, the process by which natural or human causes reduce the biological productivity of drylands (arid and semiarid lands). 0 times. Create a free account today. Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah. Geography. Harvesting twice a year from the same field. Share Flipboard Email ... Matt Rosenberg is an award-winning geographer and the author of "The Handy Geography Answer Book" and "The Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook." Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Such losses are not restricted to developing countries. Double Cropping By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Some one-fifth of the irrigated cropland, three-fifths of the rain-fed cropland, and three-fourths of the rangeland have been at least moderately harmed by desertification. Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or exchange of commodities. Causes and consequences of desertification, https://www.britannica.com/science/desertification, Young People's Trust For The Environment - Desertification, NASA - Earth Observatory - Desertification, desertification - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In 1977, at the United Nations Conference on Desertification (UNCOD) in Nairobi, Kenya, representatives and delegates first contemplated the worldwide effects of desertification. Desertification is defined by the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification as land degradation in arid, semiarid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. In Asia, Iraq has lost over 70 percent of its irrigated land to salt accumulation. Slightly less than half of Earth’s ice-free land surface—approximately 52 million square km (about 20 million square miles)—is drylands, and these drylands cover some of the world’s poorest countries. ‘Pollution, erosion, desertification, increased rates of extinction and more can all be traced back to us.’ ‘Despite the massive amount of land claimed by expanding desertification each year, the phenomenon receives only infrequent attention, perhaps because the effects seldom seem to … This report evaluates the condition of desertification in drylands, including hyper-arid areas, by asking pointed questions and providing answers based exclusively on the reports genera… AP Human Geography Samples and Commentary from the 2019 Exam Administration: Free-Response Question 1 - Set 1 Author: College Board Subject: AP Human Geography Samples and Commentary from the 2019 Exam Administration: Free-Response Question 1 - Set 1 Keywords A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals. Aerial view of the circular irrigation system at Al-Kufrah oasis, southeastern Libya. (Oxford Dictionary) Areas that are predisposed to desertification are usually those located in warm, semi-arid or arid climates. Rainwater results from the condensation of water evaporated by sunlight. Considerable controversy exists over the proper definition of the term “desertification” for which Helmut Geist (2005) has identified more than 100 formal definitions.The most widely acceptedof these is that of the Princeton University Dictionary which defines it as “the process of fertile land transforming into desert typically as a result of deforestation, drought or improper/inappropriate agriculture” The earliest known discussion of the topic arose soon after the French colonization of West Africa, when the Comité d’Etud… Create a free account today. In the United States, salt accumulation has lowered crop yields across more than 50,000 square km (19,000 square miles), an area that is about a quarter of the country’s irrigated land. In 1991, the UN Environment Program defined it as “land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid areas, resulting mainly from adverse human … Grazing lands, which are harmed by overgrazing, soil. Over 60 percent of these irrigated areas occur in drylands. Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers. By their very nature, arid and semiarid ecosystems are characterized by sparse or variable rainfall. Certainly, some dryland areas have been irrigated for millennia, but other areas are more fragile. Baobab trees growing in the wooded-grassland area of Senegal in West Africa. The conference explored the causes and contributing factors and also possible local and regional solutions to the phenomenon. To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind. Throughout history and into modern times, forests have been razed to make space for agriculture and animal grazing, and to obtain wood for fuel, manufacturing, and construction.. Deforestation has greatly altered landscapes around the world. Desertification is a type of land degradation in drylands in which biological productivity is lost due to natural processes or induced by human activities whereby fertile areas become increasingly arid. A machine that cuts grain standing in a field. Look it up now! Areas are more fragile agriculture undertaken primarily to proved food for direct consumption by wind... That it collected for irrigation is the name given to the phenomenon the seasonal migration of between! Valuable resource both in the spring and harvested in the late summer the purpose farming. 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