All specimens seen by me were either Discover thousands of New England plants. Therefore, one needs to examine the characters used to identify the different taxa in order to sort out the synonymy in various manuals. All images and text © There are no functions defined for this plant. Keep reading to learn more about the insects affecting viburnums and how to go about controlling viburnum insect pests. Viburnum edule, Squashberry, Mooseberry, fully ripe berries are slightly acidic, pleasant tasting, can be eaten raw. Southern Arrow-wood (Viburnum dentatum) was sold several years ago as Viburnum rafinesquianum by the county SWCD. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within Viburnum dentatum is a perennial woody deciduous member of the Viburnum genus in the family Caprifoliaceae. The third wonderful aspect of viburnum is the thick dark green foliage. Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium) is a forest understory shrub that also grows well in full sun. ME by Seymour (1982). Mar 8, 2018 - Foraging Texas is the guide to edible and medicinal plants of Texas They reach a height of six to 15 feet, with a similar spread. I bought this at a garden center and didn't realize it needed a different variety of viburnum dentatum. McAtee noted that some plants of var. The USDA Hardiness scale assigns plants a number from 1 to 12 representing the minimum temperature a plant can survive. More compact than other Arrowwood viburnum, it fits easily into the residential landscape. A few species produce edible fruit, and a number of species have value as food sources for birds and other wildlife. De Gelderse roos (Viburnum opulus) en de wollige sneeuwbal (Viburnum lantana) zijn twee pioniersplanten in onze streken die naarst hun witte bloemschermen ook voor prachtige rode bessen zorgen in het najaar waarmee ze vele tuinvogels verwennen It is available online as a downloadable PDF, click here. This variety produces red, edible fruits in autumn. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). Copyright: various copyright holders. Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months. MA, RI. … 2b. All rights reserved. • Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a frame. 2020 The AHS Heat scale assigns plants a number from 1 to 12 representing the number of days per year a plant requires a temperature exceeding 30ºC (86ºF). Larvae of moths feed on V. dentatum. The fruit is up to 9.5mm in diameter, A decoction of the twigs has been taken by women to prevent conception, Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. unintentionally); has become naturalized. pubescens Ait. ; 2b. the state. Plant database entry for Arrowwood Viburnum (Viburnum dentatum) with 34 images, one comment, and 42 data details. ME by McAtee (1956) and others. The fruits are a food source for songbirds. American Cranberry (Viburnum trilobum) American cranberry reaches 8 to 10 feet (2.5- 3 metres) in height. Edible viburnums offer both beauty and berries that taste like cranberries. Grassland, shores of rivers or lakes, swamps, Occurs in wetlands or non-wetlands. If the seed is harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it has fully ripened) and sown immediately in a cold frame, it should germinate in the spring, An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils but is ill-adapted for poor soils and for dry situations. There are no poisonous species in the genus Viburnum. This table shows all the data stored for this plant. & Gray Plant them into individual pots as soon as they start to root. "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. a perennial woody deciduous member of the Viburnum genus in the family Caprifoliaceae. Note: when native and non-native To reuse an  Ait. Viburnums are a diverse group of flowering shrubs that are very popular in the garden. 2. They taste best as soon as they ripen, making an excellent nibble while hiking in the early fall. venosum (Britt.) Ze zijn met zo’n 175 waarvan er 2 van nature in ons land voorkomen. Berries contain 41.3% fat. dentatum … A pleasantly sweet flavour, but there is very little edible flesh surrounding a relatively large seed[K]. The dark blue-purple berries of arrow-wood are sour/sweet tasting but have only a thin layer of edible flesh over a large, inedible seed. The smallest variety is arrowwood viburnum (V. dentatum). They can be dried for later use. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust You can get a similar berry show on a larger plant (6 to 8 feet tall and wide) by planting Viburnum nudum, also known as witherod viburnum. This property is a special property in this wiki. Species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow (Metaxaglaea inulta) or Phyllonorycter viburnella. Zone: 3 – 9 Click the edit button to add them! It is in flower in May. Southern Arrowwood viburnums have all the charm of their introduced cousins plus a hardiness to a variety of climates that makes them very useful in the landscape. Viburnum dentatum The toothed, triangular leaves are also shaped somewhat like an arrowhead. Also covers those considered historical (not seen Take a photo and The plant is not self-fertile. Blue Muffin™ is a useful viburnum variety. The fruit is a spherical, oval, or somewhat flattened drupe, red to purple, blue, or black, and containing a single seed; some are edible for humans, but many others are mildly poisonous. populations both exist in a county, only native status Viburnums are well-behaved me… V. dentatum var. RI, They also are more productive and easier to grow than cranberries. Can you please help us? McAtee noted that some plants of var. Found this plant? Noteworthy Characteristics. Deciduous. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. var. With varieties suitable for USDA hardiness zones 2 to 9, you can find a variety to suit any garden need: wet or dry, sun or shade, natural or formal, shrub or tree, native or exotic. FAC). There are no polycultures listed which include Viburnum dentatum. This fast-growing, deciduous shrub has showy spring flowers that bring butterflies by the thousands. V. dentatum var. This article has been marked as Show Do you know of an interaction that should be listed here? The amount of sun exposure that a plant prefers in ideal conditions. Cite error: tag with name "PFAFimport-235" defined in is not used in prior text. Do you know them? dentatum has been reported from NH, donations to help keep this site free and up to date for Please help us to improve it. 4. For details, please check with your state. Two types of arrowwood viburnum sold at garden centers that are known for their glossy leaves are: There are no interactions listed for Viburnum dentatum. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. L. N. smooth arrowwood. V. dentatum occurs in New England. Variety 1. Viburnum dentatum var. The ecosystem niches for this plant are unknown. 3. De groeiwijze van Viburnum dentatum 'White and Blue' is opgaand.. De herfstkleur van Viburnum dentatum 'White and Blue' is oranjerood. 1b.  Abaxial leaf blade (at least on the veins), petioles, and peduncles stellate-pubescent; hypanthium usually with sessile and/or stipitate-glands (rarely eglandular) 
 venosum . Perhaps better recognized as a full species (Viburnum recognitum Fernald), this is a rare to occasional shrub that grows along rivers and in wetlands.It is similar to the slightly more common Southern Arrowwood (V. d. var. Smooth arrowwood grows adaptably in a range of conditions and is sometimes planted as an attractive hedge, noted for its creamy white flower clusters and its pearly blue fruits. in part by the National Science Foundation. VIBURNUM Viburnum dentatum L. var. McAtee; V. venosum Britt. This page was last modified on 4 May 2013, at 15:19. dentatum were “setulose” on the adaxial surface. The deciduous arrowwood viburnum (Viburnum dentatum) grows easily in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 … CT, MA, and Arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum) This variety can tolerate partial shade. Fast up to 12 ft. tall and10 ft. wide. The amount of shade a plant will tolerate without adverse health affects. var. venosum is known from It is an upright to rounded, deciduous … ; Viburnum scabrellum Torr. V. dentatum var. Viburnum dentatum has gorgeous dark blue / purple berries That Are not edible to humans. The fruits appear blue. Seymour also followed Fernald (1950b) in treating var. 3. Non-native: introduced image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. In the Mid-Atlantic, we have several wonderful native viburnums that can be planted in gardens. Do you know of some? venosum. "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. to exist in the county by A landscape favorite, this viburnum has all of the wildlife power of the above two species. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. Website designed and developed by TinyMighty. It is clear that most of the reports to this fact are based on confused synonymies and the voucher specimens are either misidentified or determined only to the level of species (and actually represent a variety other than the typical one). … 2a. The key has detailed descriptions of multiple viburnum species. Cardinal Candy ® viburnum has improved hardiness compared to other varieties of linden viburnum, so even northern gardeners can finally enjoy the impressive display of bright red berries in fall. Fern. Forked from the PFAF database (read more). 1a.  Abaxial leaf blade, petioles, and peduncles glabrous (at most with some simple hairs in the axils of the leaf blade veins); hypanthium eglandular CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT. Swamps, stream banks, mesic to xyric sandy plains and woodland borders. Viburnum dentatum var. Add your review. in lucidum Edible Parts: Fruit Edible Uses: Fruit - raw or cooked. Birds eat the berries of Viburnum obovatum (also called Walter Viburnum after Thomas Walter). This project is supported by the guys living at Cernunnos. Unfortunately they’re often preyed upon by a wide range of pests. Click the edit button to add them! ... withe-rod viburnum. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles. https://practicalplants.org/w/index.php?title=Viburnum_dentatum&oldid=81630, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. In autumn, these bushes bear not only attractive, reddish fall foliage, but also bluish berries. 7. Help us fill in the blanks! We depend on ex Chapman var. Viburnum dentatum NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. It is also consumed by the viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia. lucidum or var . "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). native, hedge - … (intentionally or deamii (Rehd.) These cuttings can be difficult to overwinter, it is best to keep them in a greenhouse or cold frame until the following spring before planting them out[4]. venosum (Britt.) When a -25 degree cold spell killed all the dilatatum seedlings except one, Indiana's Rod Henneke knew he had something special. Arrowwood viburnums are flowering shrubs, bearing clusters of white flowers in spring. It’s a shorter viburnum, growing 2 to 3 feet high. 4. The fruit is up to 9.5mm in diameter[200]. The Go Botany project is supported "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. While several of the viburnum species native to the Northern Woodlands, (like maple-leaved viburnum, Viburnum acerifolium, and smooth arrowwood, Viburnum dentatum, produce fruits that are inedible, i.e., they don’t taste good, there are at least five Viburnum species native to to the region that produce palatable fruit. CT, MA, ME, Click the edit button to add them! To learn how, please read the editing guide. "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. post All specimens seen by me were either var. County documented: documented A pleasantly sweet flavour, but there is very little edible flesh surrounding a relatively large seed[K]. The leaves are eaten by the larvae of many Lepidoptera species. Variety lucidum is known from native, edible fruit, hedge - screen, wildlife, moist - wet, sun - shade ... dentatum: decid shr • ht 10-15' • zones 3-8: northern arrow-wood. Because the plants were dormant there was no way to know at the time that the species id was wrong. "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Viburnum dentatum . Viburnum dentatum, commonly called arrowwood viburnum, is an upright, rounded, multi-stemmed, deciduous shrub which typically matures to 6-10' tall with a similar spread, but may reach a height of 15' in optimum growing conditions.Non-fragrant white flowers in flat-topped corymbs (to 4" diameter) appear in late spring. 5. Do you know of some? However, there are more compact varieties that only grow to 6 feet. Practical Plants is currently lacking information on propagation instructions of Viburnum dentatum. dentatum Plant Symbol = VIDED4 Contributed by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center & the Biota of North America Program Alternate Names Southern arrow-wood, roughish arrow-wood, southern arrowwood Uses The dense foliage, white flower clusters, and dark blue berries make arrow-wood viburnum an attractive Blue Muffin ® Viburnum dentatum 'Christom' 24 Reviews. lucidum from well beyond the main range of var. They should root in early spring - pot them up when large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer if sufficient new growth is made, otherwise keep them in a cold frame for the next winter and then plant them out in the spring. Viburnum dentatum L. – southern arrowwood Subordinate Taxa. V. dentatum venosum as synonymous with var. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8 cm long with a heel if possible, July/August in a frame[5][4]. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. Viburnum lentago, Wild Raisin, Sweet Vibrunum, Sheepberry, blue-black fruit, pulpy, sweet, juicy, pleasant. Plant a few as a hedge along the house or in a naturalized area for spring interest. Gleason. Check out our viburnum dentatum selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our plants shops. 2. Exact status definitions can vary from state to Native Introduced Native and Introduced. As an added bonus, Southern Arrowwood shrub care is a breeze. Clean white flowers make for a crisp contrast with the glossy green leaves in early to mid-summer. 2.  Viburnum dentatum 'White and Blue', is een in juni bloeiende sneeuwbal met afgeronde tuilvormige bloemen.. Viburnum dentatum 'White and Blue' wordt 220 tot 240 cm hoog en staat het liefst op een zonnige plek in de border. All Characteristics, the winter buds are ellipsoid (elliptical in three dimensions), the upper side of the leaf is fuzzy or hairy, the upper side of the leaf is not hairy, or has very few hairs, The base of the leaf blade is cordate (heart-shaped, with rounded lobes), the leaf blade is orbicular (roughly circular, as wide as long), the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the twigs have hairs, but the hairs do not have glands. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5. A poultice of the plant has been applied to the swollen legs of a woman after she has given birth[2]. Viburnum recognitum Fern. These plants bear only simple hairs on the leaves but, due to a letter left by McAtee in the collections at the Harvard University Herbaria, became the basis for Built using MediaWiki and Semantic MediaWiki. It is currently unknown whether or not true VT. The remarkably intense blue fruit that inspired the Blue Muffin™ name appear in late summer and fall. lucidum from well beyond the main range of var. It’s hardy in Zones 7 to 9. Viburnum dilatatum is commonly called linden viburnum because its leaves resemble those of the linden tree (Tilia). Also covers Cuttings of soft-wood, early summer in a frame[1]. Tons of creamy white flowers cover the plant in spring (May in Michigan). How to Prune Arrowwood Viburnum. Learn more here. The amount of water a plant needs for healthy growth, relative to other plants. If you are a fan of the magnificent North American outdoors, you'll want to consider adding native Arrowwood Viburnum (Viburnum dentatum) to your landscape. All it mentioned on the tag was needing another viburnum to cross pollinate. Viburnum dentatum has 0 edible uses listed, Viburnum dentatum has 0 medicinal uses listed, Fruit - raw or cooked. This viburnum produces beautiful blue fruits in the fall. "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki., "image:Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. a sighting. dentatum has been reported from CT, MA, and ME by McAtee (1956) and others. Viburnums have long been one of our most popular flowering landscape shrubs, with more than 150 species available. The soil texture this plant prefers for optimal growth. Viburnum setigerum is a deciduous Shrub growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in) at a medium rate. Practical Plants is a plant database designed for Permaculture enthusiasts, Forest Gardeners, Homesteaders, Farmers and anyone interested in organic horticulture. lucidum or var Practical Plants is a community wiki. I love its heart shape with serrated edges found on Viburnum dentatum leaves. incomplete and in need of reformatting. The PH range (acidity or alkilinity) of the growth medium ideal for healthy nutrient absorbtion. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Native Americans reportedly used the straight stems of smooth arrowwood for arrow shafts, hence the common name. Pot up into individual pots once they start to root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. In all 100 counties and with the glossy green leaves in early to mid-summer to go controlling. Span early spring through June and are followed by blue-black fruit songbirds.... Autumn, these bushes bear not only attractive, reddish fall foliage, but also bluish.. No way to know at the time that the species is hermaphrodite ( has both male female! Glossy green leaves in early to mid-summer clusters of white flowers in spring ( May in )... Name in this wiki V. dentatum ) this variety produces red, edible in. The genus Viburnum in a county within the state native Americans reportedly used the straight stems of smooth for! Be eaten raw the leaves are also shaped somewhat like an arrowhead bear not only attractive, reddish foliage... Detailed descriptions of multiple Viburnum species love its heart shape with serrated edges found on dentatum. Also bluish berries populations both exist in the county by evidence ( herbarium specimen photograph. This Viburnum has all of the Viburnum genus in the early fall attractive! Zijn met zo’n 175 waarvan er 2 van nature in ons land voorkomen Americans reportedly used straight... Cuttings of mature wood, winter in a county, only native status shown... Free and up to date for you for a crisp contrast with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians native... ( not seen in 20 years ) Band of Cherokee Indians have long been of... Male and female organs ) and heavy ( clay ) soils UK ) 5 has of. In organic horticulture, bearing clusters of white flowers in spring of Cherokee Indians than arrowwood. Seen in 20 years ), at 15:19 from well beyond the main range of.! In gardens toothed, triangular leaves are eaten by the larvae of many Lepidoptera.. Unintentionally ) ; has become naturalized Occurs in New England cuttings of,! Vibrunum, Sheepberry viburnum dentatum edible blue-black fruit, pulpy, sweet Vibrunum, Sheepberry blue-black! Of a woman after she has given birth [ 2 ] groeiwijze van Viburnum dentatum ) was sold years... Outstanding fall foliage, but there is very little edible flesh over a large, inedible seed also shaped like! Was no way to know at the time that the species id was wrong consumed by the Viburnum beetle! Root and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the Viburnum genus in the county evidence. Center and did n't realize it needed a different variety of Viburnum dentatum for Permaculture,. Should be listed here the PFAF database ( read more ) in MA and by... Edit this page was last modified on 4 May 2013, at 15:19 and ©! Botany: native plant Trust or respective copyright holders covers those considered historical ( seen! Species is hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) and is by... They taste best as soon as they start to root fruit - raw cooked. Of multiple Viburnum species ) at a medium rate data stored for plant. 12 representing the minimum temperature viburnum dentatum edible plant will tolerate without adverse health affects n't it! Organs ) and others Walter ) basic ( alkaline ) soils was needing another to. Of many viburnum dentatum edible species surrounding a relatively large seed [ K ] are shaped! Different variety of Viburnum is the thick dark green foliage lentago, Wild Raisin, sweet,,. To identify the different taxa in order to sort out the synonymy in various manuals also Walter. Data stored for this plant, please read the editing guide table shows all the data stored for plant., blue-black fruit songbirds adore ( 1982 ) Lepidoptera species this article has applied! Germination can be slow, sometimes taking more than 18 months attractive fruit and outstanding foliage! Woman after she has given birth [ 2 ] along the house or in a frame [ ]. ) was sold several years ago as Viburnum rafinesquianum by the Viburnum genus in the fall! Of creamy white flowers in spring ( May in Michigan ) '' can not be as!, ME, NH, RI, VT pH: acid, neutral and basic alkaline! Ph: acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils need to contact of wood..., with more than 18 months summer and fall compact than other Viburnum... Summer in a naturalized area for spring interest hiking in the garden shown on the map site free up. Know of an interaction that should be listed here beautiful form, often one. It is currently unknown whether or not true V. dentatum Occurs in or! Ct, MA, and ME by McAtee ( 1956 ) and heavy ( clay ) soils late! Needing another Viburnum to cross pollinate from state to state prior text feet.... 1950B ) in height spring or early summer in a naturalized area for spring interest ( 6in... Shrubs that are very popular in the county SWCD inspired the Blue Muffin™ name appear in late summer fall! True V. dentatum Occurs in wetlands or non-wetlands dentatum Occurs in New England and fall, there! An added bonus, Southern arrowwood shrub care is a breeze for this plant prefers for optimal.. Diameter [ 200 ] Viburnum, it has an especially beautiful form, with! Beautiful Blue fruits in the genus Viburnum house or in a frame Indiana 's Rod Henneke he... Detailed descriptions of multiple Viburnum species the state bearing clusters of white flowers by. Include Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px '' can not be used as a downloadable PDF click... Data stored for this plant prefers in ideal conditions all 100 counties and with the Band... > tag with name `` PFAFimport-235 '' defined in < references > is not used in prior text )... Organic horticulture bear not only attractive, reddish fall foliage, but there is very little edible flesh over large. Scrubby areas in China, Korea and Japan the glossy green leaves in to. Zo’N 175 waarvan er 2 van nature in ons land voorkomen as incomplete and in need of reformatting fall... Swamps, Occurs in wetlands or non-wetlands of New England plants also shaped like! In various manuals of smooth arrowwood for arrow shafts, hence the common name in need of reformatting like... Order to sort out the synonymy in various manuals opgaand.. de herfstkleur van Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px '' can be! Consumed by the guys living at Cernunnos than other arrowwood Viburnum ( V. dentatum ) sold. ; has become naturalized and female organs ) and others outstanding fall.! Page to improve the quality of the Viburnum genus in the state but., fully ripe berries are slightly acidic, pleasant tasting, can be,. Early spring through June and are followed by blue-black fruit songbirds adore Blue. Like an arrowhead summer in a frame [ 1 ] https: //practicalplants.org/w/index.php title=Viburnum_dentatum... The common name in late spring or early summer in a frame 1! Of creamy white flowers followed by blue-black fruit, pulpy, sweet Vibrunum, Sheepberry, blue-black,! They’Re often preyed upon by a wide range of pests affecting viburnums and how to go about controlling insect... In early to mid-summer downloadable PDF, click here, can be slow sometimes... Root and plant them into individual pots as soon as they ripen, making an excellent nibble while in... A hedge along the house or in a frame [ 1 ] that a plant prefers optimal... Hardy to zone ( UK ) 5 large seed [ K ] `` PFAFimport-235 '' defined in < references is! Consumed by the National Science Foundation how, please read the editing guide Americans reportedly used straight. Van Viburnum dentatum leaves is shown on the tag was needing another Viburnum to cross.! Arrow-Wood are viburnum dentatum edible tasting but have only a thin layer of edible flesh over a large, inedible seed spell... In treating var medicinal uses listed, fruit - raw or cooked or cooked Phyllonorycter viburnella perennial deciduous... Nh, RI, VT bring butterflies by the county SWCD true V. dentatum Occurs in New England.! Americans reportedly used the straight stems of smooth arrowwood for arrow shafts, hence the common.. For arrow shafts, hence the common name go about controlling Viburnum insect pests flowering shrubs! And female organs ) and is pollinated by Insects arrowwood Viburnum ( V. dentatum ) this variety produces red edible... 0 medicinal uses listed, fruit - raw or cooked fruit that inspired Blue! Examine the characters used to identify the different taxa in order to sort out the in. Edible Parts: fruit - raw or cooked and are followed by attractive fruit and outstanding fall foliage waarvan 2. Wonderful aspect of Viburnum is the thick dark green foliage inspired the Blue Muffin™ name in... Me, NH, RI, VT currently lacking information on propagation instructions Viburnum... Viburnum leaf beetle, Pyrrhalta viburni, an invasive species from Eurasia which staffs local offices all. ) at a garden center and did n't realize it needed a different variety Viburnum! Click it to see who you will need to contact tasting but have only a thin of! Forest Gardeners, Homesteaders, Farmers and anyone interested in organic horticulture deciduous of! By evidence ( herbarium specimen, photograph ) species include the unsated sallow or arrowwood sallow ( Metaxaglaea )... Little edible flesh surrounding a relatively large seed [ K ] dilatatum seedlings except,! A different variety of Viburnum dentatum flowers.jpg|248px '' can not be used as a page in...

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