However, 84% of the Republic of Ireland is Catholic compared to 45% in Northern Ireland. Religion, Conflict and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland has more Christians in its population (93%) than Wales (57.6%), Scotland (53.8%), and England (59.4%). The island of Ireland is known as Eire in Irish Gaelic. Protestant and Catholic communities are not distributed evenly. The population of Northern Ireland was estimated as being 1,710,300 on 30 June 2004. The occasional larger farm often has a Georgian house—simple and dignified, a reflection of the age of consolidation. The creation of an exterior barrier will have a knock-on effect on the existing internal walls and, worryingly, it seems like May and her cabinet have no idea about the nature or extent of those divisions. The Church of Ireland experienced a major decline in membership during the 20th century, both in Northern Ireland, where around 65% of its members live, and in the Republic of Ireland. Chris­tian­ity is the main re­li­gion in North­ern Ire­land. Some towns have grown with the introduction of industry, particularly Dungannon, which specializes in fabrics, and Carrickfergus, now noted for aluminum castings and telecommunications cables. Ireland - Ireland - Ethnic groups, language, and religion: Ethnic and racial minorities make up about 12 percent of the population of Ireland—a proportion that doubled in the first decade of the 21st century. The state of conflict in Northern Ireland is manifested in the names by which the Northern Irish identify themselves. The War began as a campaign against discrimination of Catholics who consider themselves a nationalist minority by the Protestants who were viewed as government loyalists. The end result was the orderly, small square fields that dominate the contemporary landscape. Judaism is practiced by the 400 Jews living in Northern Ireland while about 200 Hindu families practice Hinduism. Small marble slabs dot the streets celebrating the memory of those killed during the Troubles (period of great violence, not to say civil war, extending from 1969 to 1998). Religion in Northern Ireland Religion 2001 - 2011 *The ˜rst Census of Northern Ireland took place in 1926; earlier ˜gures are drawn from the Census of Ireland. The first religious beliefs and practices of ancient Ireland centred around Celtic tribes which was known as Celtic paganism. A survey carried out in 1993 by the Northern Ireland Social Attitudes Survey showed that, 77 per cent of marriages in Northern Ireland are to partners of the same religion, compared with only 55 per cent in Britain. Although the Northern Irish birth rate declined over the last two decades of the 20th century, it remains relatively high by British standards. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By Victor Kiprop on April 16 2019 in World Facts. 1300), Power-sharing agreements and the establishment of a fragile peace. Bangor is a resort and a residential outlier of Belfast. Ireland consists of 26 counties and Northern Ireland comprises of only six counties. Shipbuilding, linen manufacturing, and engineering have declined in Belfast, but shipping remains a major employer, and the aircraft industry has gained in importance. Identification. The Republic of Ireland makes up most of the island 3. This segment looks at the 30-year period known as the “Troubles” in Northern Ireland and discusses the complicated ways in which religion was caught up in the conflict. The state of conflict in Northern Ireland is manifested in the names by which the Northern Irish identify themselves. expected ˜gure for those stating ‘Catholic’ and a higher than expected ˜gure for ‘Not stated’. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com. The Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland have almost the same culture and traditions. 42% 41% 17% 0.8% Millions Census of Ireland Northern Ireland … Northern Ireland's polarising history stretches back long before the Troubles. The name of the capital city, Belfast, derives from the city's Gaelic name, Beal Feirste, which means "mouth of the sandy ford," referring to a stream that joins the Lagan River. Catholics now make up about two-fifths of the population, and their slightly higher birth rate has led to speculation that they eventually will become the larger of the “two communities.” Although Protestants continue to be a majority, they are perhaps best thought of as a “majority of minorities,” in that the Protestant community comprises a mosaic of distinct denominations that vary enormously in size. The remainder of the Protestant population is fragmented among dozens of smaller religious groupings. The population of Northern Ireland is comparatively young in relation to that of the rest of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland is the older of the two, having been formed in 1921 from the six counties in the northern Province of Ulster which wished to retain its political unity with Great Britain. Northern Ireland's equalities practices are furthering the harmful narrative that the country is made up of two communities and restricting citizens' ability to decide their own religious identities, says Roy Fisher. As a result, the historic counties of Londonderry, Fermanagh, and Tyrone now have marked Catholic majorities, while the traditional concentration of Protestants in the eastern reaches has increased. Many are grouped around a “diamond” (meeting place), which is used as a marketplace. The demographic balance between Protestants and Roman Catholics in Northern Ireland is becoming increasingly delicate. In Northern Ireland, Catholics and Protestants in urban, working-class neighborhoods continue to be segregated 20 years after the signing of the Good Friday peace deal. In fact, it would be a good idea for them to join one of those tours. It is practiced by Muslims, most of whom immigrated to the country in the late 20th century. A large percentage of the Christians in the country attend Roman Catholic Churches followed by Presbyter… However, the net outflow of people from the region has been relatively small, especially when compared with the mass emigration that has typified Ireland in various periods. Northern Ireland is also marked by stark patterns of residential segregation. Judaism is practiced by the 400 Jews living in Northern Ireland while about 200 Hindu families practice Hinduism. The Roman Catholic Church is the single largest church in the country although there are more Protestants overall. Small market towns rather than villages are common. In one sense religious affiliation has been a prime cause of the island’s troubled history. The Church of Ireland is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating both in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. About 93% of the Northern Irish population identifies as Christian, 1% is non-Christian and 6% is not religious. Ireland is a single island, situated next to Britain, but there are two countries on the island 2. If that's not enough, click over to our collection of world maps and flags. Northern Ireland (Irish: Tuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom, which is on the island of Ireland.. In Northern Ireland—the U.K.’s poorest region, largely dependent on British government spending, which London puts in excess of £9 billion ($11.5 billion) a year—the figure was €23,600. Armagh is an ecclesiastical centre with two cathedrals, while Lisburn, Lurgan, and Portadown, all in the Lagan valley, form an extension of the Belfast industrial complex, their size a product of the textile industry. In the western half of Northern Ireland, regional services and administration have enlarged Omagh and Enniskillen. It is one of the two countries that make up Ireland, the other being the Republic of Ireland. The population of Northern Ireland, on the day the census was carried out in March 2011, had increased by 125,600 to 1.811m, between 2001 and 2011. During the political violence of the last third of the 20th century, many Protestants moved away from western and border areas of Northern Ireland. But a hard Border it will be and Ireland will be more effectively partitioned than at any time in its history. The traditional regions of Northern Ireland correspond closely to the main topographic elements, although they are also the outcome of the cultural evolution of the area. Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920.Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom. These differences have resulted in centuries of conflict that extend even into modern times. 42% 41% 17% 0.8% Millions Census of Ireland Northern Ireland … In the interest of self-preservation, young people learn early to recognize the various cues that indicate ethnoreligious identity. Christianity is the island’s largest religion, having more followers than any other religion in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The population of Northern Ireland is about 1.9 million people with a third of this population residing in the Belfast Metropolitan area. The island of Ireland is known as Eire in Irish Gaelic. expected ˜gure for those stating ‘Catholic’ and a higher than expected ˜gure for ‘Not stated’. As in most other societies a person's religion in Northern Ireland is largely determined by the religion of their parents. The most substantial Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland, the Presbyterians, makes up more than one-fifth of the population. The largest Christian denomination in Northern Ireland is Protestant Christianity where over 41.5% of the population identify themselves as Protestants. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. How well do you know your musical places? Even when Catholics and Protestants reside in the same part of the region, they tend to live separately from one another. The name of the capital city, Belfast, derives from the city's Gaelic name, Beal Feirste, which means "mouth of the sandy ford," referring to a stream that joins the Lagan River. Northern Ireland religion is a hot potato. The most substantial Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland, the Presbyterians, makes up more than one-fifth of the population. West of Lough Neagh and in the fastness of the Mourne Mountains and of Slieve Gullion, as well as in the more distant Lough Erne region, indigenous elements have maintained a distinctiveness. A Baptist church in Limavady, County Londonderry. When comparing the religion of the two regions, the Northern Ireland consists of Protestants and Ireland consists of Catholics. Northern Ireland is the older of the two, having been formed in 1921 from the six counties in the northern Province of Ulster which wished to retain its political unity with Great Britain. Professor John Brewer from Queen's University in Belfast has researched links between politics and religion. During the “Troubles”—the term used euphemistically to describe the violence between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland—many wealthy Protestants from Belfast relocated to the pastoral environs of northern Down while their less privileged counterparts moved to the bleak estates that sprung up in the satellite towns that ring the city. In one sense religious affiliation has been a prime cause of the island’s troubled history. Since partition, emigration from Northern Ireland has tended to outpace immigration. Protestants account for 48% of the population while Catholics account for 45%. Claiming direct unbroken descent from the beginnings of Irish Christianity, it is the largest Protestant church on the island of Ireland and the second largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland. This case study examines the complex and multifaceted role of religion in the conflict in Northern Ireland between Catholic nationalists and Protestant unionists. In the 2001 census, 45.6% of the population identified as belonging to Protestant denominations (of which 20.7% Presbyterian, 15.3% Church of Ireland), 40.3% identified as Catholic, 0.3% identified with non-Christian religions and 13.9% identified with no religion. The city is also the centre of government, finance, education, and culture. The hostilities between adjacent working-class districts composed of different ethnoreligious communities have led to the creation of “peace lines,” essentially permanent structures aimed at keeping the warring factions apart. Religious difference between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland was among the significant factors that lead to the armed conflict between the two countries between the 1960s–1998. Northern Ireland religion is a hot potato. The population of Northern Ireland has risen yearly since 1978. The size of Belfast, at the head of Belfast Lough on the northeast coast, underlines its dominance of the region, as well as its significance as an industrial centre and major port. Northern Ireland has seen more than its fair share of political and economic unrest, yet the people of this region have always remained proud of their cultural and artistic heritage, providing visitors with a warm hospitality hard to find almost anywhere else in the world. Well, Northern Ireland is considered to be a part of UK and its capital is Belfast. They would see that the problem is not just the walls. This segregation, especially evident in Belfast, is even more pronounced in poorer neighbourhoods. In the 2001 decennial census, the Census Office for Northern Ireland (CONI) asked a new question to attempt to achieve a more accurate depiction of the balance of the mainly unionist Protestant and mainly nationalist Catholic communities across Northern Ireland.. As well as asking the traditional question of "Religion?" Between the end of the 18th and the middle of the 19th century, most of the land was enclosed and the scattered strips consolidated, partly as a policy of the landlords but finally because of the decline in rural population after the Potato Famine of the 1840s. This constitutes just under 3% of the population of the UK (62 million) and just over 28% of the population of the island of Ireland (6.3 million). Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland First came the English soldiers, settlers, lords, government officials, etc who belonged mostly to… Some of these towns acquired a mill in the 19th century, but in few cases has this changed the essentially rural context. The rise in both Orthodox and Muslim numbers reflects the increase in migration to Ireland in recent yea… About one in six people belong to the next biggest Protestant denomination, the Anglican Church of Ireland. The main religion in the Republic of Ireland is Christianity which has historically been dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. In the north and east the influence of the Scots and English has been paramount. We get this question quite a bit, usually over email and always from those visiting Ireland from lands afar. Land. The 2011 UK cen­sus showed 40.8% Roman Catholic, 19.1% Pres­by­ter­ian Church, with the Church of Ire­land hav­ing 13.7% and the Methodist Church 3.0%. In 1969, with police in Northern Ireland under pressure from protests, British troops were deployed to assist them. Most farmhouses are small, and a few are still thatched. The Labour Force Survey Religion Report examines the labour market differences of the two religions in Northern Ireland, including unemployment rates and levels of economic activity. Occasional relics of tiny hamlets, or clachans, show that peasant crofts once were huddled together and worked by kinship groups in an open-field system. Walking through the Catholic or Protestant Northern Ireland districts is always a thrilling experience. Northern Ireland is in United Kingdom. In contrast, only 4.2% of the Republic of Ireland’s population are Protestants. As in most other societies a person's religion in Northern Ireland is largely determined by the religion of their parents. The population in 2011 was 1.8 million, having grown 7.5% over the previous decade from just under 1.7 million in 2001. Islam is the largest minority religion of Northern Ireland. It is closely related to the Church of Scotland theologically and historically. S o, Ireland vs Northern Ireland… what’s the difference? The complex sectarian geography of Northern Ireland places often severe constraints upon the physical mobility of working-class residents in particular and has an important impact upon the manner in which everyday life is organized and experienced. That makes Northern Ireland different to many other countries in the Western world. Once uniformly Catholic, when the English Protestants conquered the island they introduced religious polyphony. The number of people who do not identify with any religion is also set to rise to 10% of the population, as secularism becomes a norm in society. 1. The predominant impression of Northern Ireland’s landscape is of scattered and isolated farms. Minor Religions. 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