Sahara. having sex, getting pregnant and the overall course of their lives. chances to learn, grow and realize her full potential are diminished. The more educated a girl is, the less likely she is to marry early. 90 percent of girls age 15-19 who give birth are already married, underscoring the role of child marriage in perpetuating this crisis in women’s health. In the U.S., marriage before age 18 is associated with a 23 percent greater risk of diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes and stroke. CHILD MARRIAGE DEVASTATES GIRLS’ HEALTH Because of the forfeited education, poverty and increased stress resulting from child marriage, women in the U.S. who married at 18 or younger face a 23 percent greater risk of serious health conditions including heart attack, diabetes, cancer and stroke. Societal expectations often hinder a girl who is married from attending school. In addition to the physical danger this presents to women and girls, violence can also have lasting psychological implications on girls’ and women’s mental health. Globally, girls who marry before age 18 are 50 percent more likely to face physical or sexual violence from a partner throughout the course of their life. seconds. Stud Fam Plann. As a result, child The consequences of child marriage are devastating and often determine a life’s trajectory. Marriage dramatically limits a girl’s access to education, and education levels are among the strongest predictors of whether a girl will marry early. Child marriage (marriage before age 18 years) is an internationally recognised health and human rights violation disproportionately affecting girls, globally. In regards to health, the most important risk related to CEFM is pregnancy and, accordingly, dangerous situations for mother-child health. marriage can increase the risk of girls becoming infected with HIV. In the least developed countries, that number doubles – 40 per cent of girls are married before age 18, and 12 per cent of girls are married before age 15. Poverty is a major force behind child marriage around the world. Child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, reproductive and sexual health, as well as psychological well-being. Child marriage is a major barrier to achieving gender equality. Maternal health. Child marriage encourages sexual activity among girls who are not yet physically or psychologically ready to deal with childbirth. Because the vast majority of child marriages are younger girls to older men, there is an inherent imbalance of power in these relationships, which is often linked to domestic violence. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, child marriage has also been linked to higher than average rates of HIV/AIDS infections, with married girls in Kenya and Zambia 75 percent more likely than their unmarried sexually active peers to contract HIV. Together, Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girl’s health such as increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), cervical cancer, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. Pregnancy at a young age not only has potentially devastating effects for mothers but also for... 3. In addition, child marriage increases the risk of violence, illness and even death for girls. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls' health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. to have numerous sexual partners, which can also increase risk, especially in Health Organization, complications the vast majority of child marriages are younger girls to older men. child brides often live in remote regions where access to healthcare and information The effect goes far beyond denying them the basic right to choose their own life partner – complications from early and unwanted pregnancies are among the leading causes of death for girls aged 15–19 years worldwide. Societal expectations often hinder a girl who is married from attending school. Stand with Canada to #changethebirthstory, 4 serious health consequences of child marriage, Child A girl may be married because her family cannot afford to pay her school fees, or for basic supplies such as sanitary pads. (1999). younger than 20 years old. See 4 of the major health consequences of child marriage. In this regard, the current review was conducted to examine the reproductive and sexual health consequences of child marriage. created on the negative implications of child marriage on the health of the children and their general wellbeing. Does child marriage make it more likely that a girl or woman will live in poverty? Are girls married before age 18 more vulnerable to domestic violence? Child marriage disproportionately affects girls, with a life-long impact on their physical and psychological health. According to Girls Not Systems that undervalue the contribution and participation of girls and women limit their own possibilities for growth, stability and transformation. Child marriage robs them of their childhoods, education, health and freedom, and can leave girls vulnerable to abuse for the rest of their lives.1 Girls living in the poorest, rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are the most vulnerable. Child marriage robs girls of their childhood and threatens their lives and health. about sexual health services and rights may be limited. it comes to child marriage, parents often believe they are doing what is best child marriage won’t be an easy feat, but change is possible if we work It truncates a girl's childhood, creates grave physical and psychological health risks, and robs her of internationally recognized human rights. What impact does child marriage have on a girl’s education? However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. When a girl is married at an early age, her Early childbearing can also result in an increased risk of miscarriage, difficulties during labor, postpartum hemorrhaging and obstetric fistula, which can occur when a mother gives birth before her body is physically ready to do so. In addition to the physical danger this presents to women and girls, violence can also have lasting psychological implications on girls’ and women’s mental health. Child brides are also more vulnerable to other pregnancy-related injuries such as obstetric fistula, which can have devastating long-term consequences, especially if left untreated. In addition, girls who marry young often live in rural or remote communities with limited access to sexual and reproductive health education, including access to contraceptives. Child marriage is a significant health risk for women and girls. [2] [5] For girls, in addition to mental health issues and a lack of access to education and career opportunities, [2] this includes adverse health effects as a result of early pregnancy (including teenage pregnancy) and childbirth . The more educated a girl is, the less likely she is to marry early. When to the World Over 720 million women and girls alive today were married before age 18. Infant mortality. also for their newborns. Girls who marry before 18 are more likely to experience domestic violence and less likely to remain in school. "Protecting" the girl's sexuality: In certain cultures, marrying a girl young presumes that the girl's sexuality, therefore the girl's family's honor, will be "protected" by ensuring that the girl marries as a virgin. Child marriage encourages sexual activity among girls who are not yet physically or psychologically... 2. A baby born to an adolescent mother between 15-19 years old is at significantly greater risk of infant mortality, with stillbirths and newborn deaths at 50 percent higher rates than for mothers who gave birth at age 20 and older. Child, in pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death in girls aged 15-19 globally, When women and girls are barred from accessing education, their economic opportunities are limited, trapping them in a cycle of poverty, which will, in turn, limit their children’s educational opportunities and, as a result, their own economic prospects. However, girls who marry , and education levels are among the strongest predictors of whether a girl will marry early. Additional barriers preventing young girls from accessing medical care also prevent young girls from receiving adequate care and medical advice throughout their pregnancy. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, child marriage has also been linked to higher than average rates of HIV/AIDS infections, with married girls in Kenya and Zambia 75 percent more likely than their unmarried sexually active peers to contract HIV. Firstly, [5] Child marriage is a human rights violation. husbands will provide safety and economic security. , pregnant girls may be prohibited from attending school as a result of discriminatory government policies. Psychologically, women married as children are more likely to suffer from symptoms related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of depression. Girls’ became pregnant early in spite of maturity and led to maternal and child mortality … International Council of Research On Women (ICRW). Achieving higher levels of education and becoming economically independent becomes almost impossible within the context of child marriage, trapping a girl and her family, as well as communities and regions, into a cycle of poverty that may continue unless the pattern is broken with the next generation. Also, girls who give birth before the age of 15 are 5 In fact, 65% of all obstetric fistula cases occur in girls under 18. brides may not have knowledge of HIV risk factors, prevention, treatment or Take our short quiz and find out! Early marriage and HIV risks in sub-Saharan Africa. In the U.S., marriage before age 18 is associated with a 23 percent greater risk of diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes and stroke. In Introduction Child Marriage refers to any marriage of a child younger than eighteen years old, in accordance to article 1 of the Convention of the Right of the child. Imagine Methods: This review was conducted by … early and forced marriage is a A baby born to an adolescent mother between 15-19 years old is at significantly greater risk of infant mortality, with stillbirths and newborn deaths at 50 percent higher rates than for mothers who gave birth at age 20 and older. Current estimates reveal 75 percent more likely than their unmarried sexually active peers to contract HIV. we can support girls in becoming empowered, confident women who decide their Child marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners. one in 10 occurred among children Health Consequences of Child Marriage and Early Child Bearing in South Sudan by Crown / Saturday, 17 November 2018 / Published in Events Children giving birth to children in South Sudan is one of the leading causes of the higher rates of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Moreover, in some countries, such as Sierra Leone and Tanzania, pregnant girls may be prohibited from attending school as a result of discriminatory government policies. Despite laws against it, the practice remains widespread: Globally, one in every five girls is married, or in union, before reaching age 18. , marriage before age 18 is associated with a 23 percent greater risk of diseases such as cancer, heart disease, diabetes and stroke. Stakeholders also emphasized prosecuting child marriage cases especially when a girl has been removed from school. marriage often ensures that girls remain dependent on others (i.e. Child before the age of 15 are almost 50% more Once married or engaged, a husband or future husband may disapprove of his wife attending school, and stop her from attending. School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. – that’s 1 girl married nearly every 2 times more likely to die in childbirth than girls in their 20s. regions where the virus in more prevalent. Gender inequality, poverty, and cultural practices are all factors in forced child marriage. Economic opportunities are extremely limited for women and girls in many communities, but the more education a girl has, the more she is able to increase her earnings and she will reinvest the vast majority of those earnings back into her family. That’s why Plan International Canada is calling on Canadians like you to stand Plan International has been building powerful partnerships for children for over 80 years and is now active in more than 75 countries. together to end what is considered ‘normal’ for millions around the world. One in seven is married by the age of 15. Plan International Canada is a member of a global organization dedicated to advancing children’s rights and equality for girls. © 2019 Plan International Canada Inc. Because I am a Girl, and Spread the Net names and associated logos are trademarks of Plan International Canada Inc. even their basic human right to say “no” to sex with their husbands. Child Communities and nations feel the impact of child marriage. Achieving higher levels of education and becoming economically independent becomes almost impossible within the context of child marriage, trapping a girl and her family, as well as communities and regions, into a cycle of poverty that may continue unless the pattern is broken with the next generation. SDG5: Gender Equality. Across all regions, children living in poverty are the most vulnerable to child marriage, and girls from the poorest families are three times more likely to marry before age 18 than girls from the wealthiest families. global issue that disproportionately affects girls. engaged in cooking, grass cutting. Africa, the connection between HIV/AIDS and child marriage is of particular Globally, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death among girls ages 15-19 years old, with an estimated 70,000 girls dying each year of pregnancy and childbirth related complications. Think you have a good understanding of child marriage? Share this and other information you find about child marriage on social media and with others in your social networks. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls' health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. , there is an inherent imbalance of power in these relationships, which is often linked to domestic violence. Child marriage continues to be highly prevalent in Africa, where almost 40% of girls are married before age 18 [].Research has consistently documented the adverse economic, social, demographic and reproductive health consequences of child marriage for child brides, their families and their communities [1,2,3,4,5,6,7].Marriage can lead to unique changes in the life of an adolescent girl … 2006 Nov; 12(11): 1644–1649.. doi: 10.3201/eid1211.060510 PMCID: PMC3372345 Globally, girls who marry before age 18 are 50 percent more likely to face physical or sexual violence from a partner throughout the course of their life. on the continent. According to the UN, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death for girls aged 15-19 years in developing countries. aged under 14. Child Marriage and HEALTH Child marriage means early sexual activity and, in most cases, early childbearing. Brides, stillbirths and newborn deaths are 50% higher in mothers Stress in a marriage can also be the cause of increased blood sugar levels and the increased risk of developing type two diabetes. or his family) and removes a girl’s decision-making abilities when it comes to Early marriage and childbearing: risks and consequences. Girls who marry young are at a higher risk of dying during childbirth, having their child die before its first birthday, contracting AIDS and becoming a victim of domestic violence. When you’re done, access exclusive content and deepen your knowledge of this global issue. Once married or engaged, a husband or future husband may disapprove of his wife attending school, and stop her from attending. Furthermore, Despite widespread recogni-tion that childbearing in the adolescent years is harmful to both mother and child, it is common in large parts of the developing world. More In low- and middle-income countries, babies born to mothers under 20 years of age also face higher risks of low birthweight, preterm delivery, and severe neonatal conditions. concern, as AIDS is now the leading cause of death among adolescents aged 10-19 partner than girls who married after 18. A girl who is married may also have responsibilities in the home, including housework, caring for children or other relatives, be sent to work to help support her husband’s household, or be physically unable to attend school because of pregnancy, or medical complications associated with pregnancy. Child marriage is closely linked to early childbearing with consequences that can be fatal. likely to have experienced physical or sexual violence from a What impact does child marriage have on girls’ health? In addition to the health consequences of early pregnancy and childbirth, these girls are at greater risk of rape, and emotional and physical abuse. Girls who marry before 18 are also more likely to describe their first sexual experience as forced. approximately 12 million girls are married before the age of 18 every year. According to the International Council of Research On Women (ICRW), women with low levels of education and married adolescents between the ages of 15-19 years old are at a higher risk of domestic violence than older and more educated women. Regardless of where in the world she lives, child marriage deprives a girl of a future in which she can reach her full potential and furthers a dangerous cycle of oppression and harm. Child marriage fosters poverty, however, as it ensures that girls who marry young will not be properly educated or take part in the workforce. “Child marriage makes girls far more vulnerable to the profound health risks of early pregnancy and childbirth – just as their babies are more vulnerable to complications associated with premature labor,” notes Anthony Lake, Executive Director of UNICEF. Key words: Child marriage, Culture, Health, Kenya 1. Because of the imbalance of power in child marriages many girls are unable to negotiate or to discuss contraception with their husbands, resulting in earlier and more frequent pregnancies. than two-thirds of those infected with HIV – 25.2 million – live south of the What effects does early pregnancy have on a girl? UNICEF estimates … United Nations Efforts and National Laws. Child marriage violates the rights of children and has widespread and long-term consequences for child brides and child grooms. and 90% of adolescent pregnancies in the developing world are to girls own futures. Hear more about our actions and campaigns and how you can get involved, including whether you can help with fundraising. already married. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, child marriage has also been linked to, higher than average rates of HIV/AIDS infections, with married girls in Kenya and Zambia. Child marriage is a human rights violation that impacts women and girls, along with their families and communities, in a variety of overlapping ways. Girls' offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. More than 250 million women alive today were married before their 15th birthday, many against their will. (2006). Pregnancy In the articles of Girls Not Brides and Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa, clearly elucidate in depth about the health impacts of child marriage among girls. with girls around the world to Defy Normal and help end child marriage. 4 serious health consequences of child marriage 1. Ending child marriage requires the consent of all those involved, including fathers and religious, community, and tribal leaders. girls are sometimes married off to older men who will have already had and may continue Of the 16 million adolescent girls who give birth every year, about 90% are already married. Additionally, higher rates of domestic violence, risks associated with earlier pregnancies and lack of access to medical care may also result in premature death. Too young, mentally and physically to become a mother, early motherhood puts the health of the mother and child in danger. When a girl marries as a child, the health of her children suffers too. for their daughters by marrying them off early, believing that their new Emerg Infect Dis. Since 1948, the United Nations and other international … . dying each year of pregnancy and childbirth related complications. And, among the 1.16 million new infections in Africa in 2016, more than Towards adulthood: exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia [cited (2004). The children of child brides are at substantially greater risk of perinatal infant mortality and morbidity, and stillbirths and newborn deaths are 50% higher in mothers under the age of 20 than in women who give birth later. the negative effects of child marriage, advocating for the equal treatment of boys and girls, and involving religious leaders in mobilization efforts to end child marriage. 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