The Foreign Secretary’s intervention however comes as Theresa May signalled that there are likely to be restrictions put on freedom of movement. 12. “We look forward to welcoming them to Britain in a few years’ time,” he told reporters at a press conference. Ewa Wolakiewicz underlines the fact that the EU–UK relations are far more complicated than the average Brexiteer thought while voting: “It is not that easy that you decide to leave and that’s it! Life in Britain is tough’”[xvii] or “The Poles looking to leave the UK after Brexit.”[xviii] Articles like the one published in November 2016 by The Independent on the uncertain future of British Poles and the unlikelihood of the massive outflow,[xix] were rare. Numbers 'must be reduced' Immigration points system begins. [vii] See for example: P. Yeung, “Brexit campaign was ‘criminally irresponsible’, says legal academic”, the Independent, 2 July 2016, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/brexit-eu-referendum-michael-dougan-leave-campaign-latest-a7115316.html. According to the latest release from the Office for National Statistics—which is the UK’s largest independent producer of official statistics—the most common non-UK country of birth in 2016 for UK residents was Poland. This led to a huge rise in migration from Poland to the UK due to the EU’s freedom of movement policy for workers. Before 2004 there were no more than 30 Polish people living in NI, according to Mr Bator. A survey conducted last year revealed widespread opposition to Muslim immigration across the UK. [xx] It seems to be not much more but wishful thinking. The most insightful comments on all subjects will be published daily in dedicated articles. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW… 14 . With so many question marks and uncertainties around Brexit there is one thing that seems to be clear: most of the British Poles have built their new lives in the UK and they will do their best to stay, no matter how the UK immigration policy after Brexit will change. Our Polish Solicitors are ready to help. Want an ad-free experience?Subscribe to Independent Premium. More… In 2019, India was – once again – the most common country of birth for migrants (863,000) in the UK after a number of Polish-born people left the UK, and the Indian born population grew slightly. “When it comes to daily life, I do not feel any difference between now and before the EU referendum”—says Ewa Wolakiewicz, a 36-year-old sociologist from London. More than 40 percent of British Poles declared they would try to stay in the UK at any cost. Moreover, EU immigrants pay more in taxes than they take out in welfare and public services. The club, as the whole British society, was divided on Brexit—our club members even had a regular fight on the day of the referendum!”, According to some of the British Poles, the growing negative attitude towards immigrants in the UK could have been observed much earlier than in the eve of the EU referendum. It was populist and very xenophobic and immigrants were used as a bugbear, but it was not merely about Poles.”, Yet, some Poles think that the campaign was indeed directed solely against them, as do some Britons. Poles still represented the biggest non-British nationality (900,000). In 2018, 10% of people working in the UK were born outside of the EU. [xx] T. Sąsiada, “Brexit. 1.3 Problem Statement 11. Polish migrants on why they moved to Liverpool UK IMMIGRATION DEBATE LATEST STORIES East European worker influx slows. Long-term net migration, immigration and emigration have remained broadly stable since the end of 2016. The overwhelming majority of them voted for leaving the EU because of their aversion to foreigners—they wanted the Great Britain for Britons, and England for Englishmen. Contact Our Polish Solicitors In London & Manchester. The Polish ‘mythology’ about the UK being a land of filled promises and large amounts of money jumping smoothly – more or less – into Polish pockets (as a Guardian reporter found out back in Poland) is the main reason behind the large Polish immigration in the UK. Create a commenting name to join the debate, There are no Independent Premium comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts, There are no comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts. The Foreign Secretary gave a press conference alongside his Polish counterpart Witold Waszczykowski. Brexit had placed Polish migrants in a precarious position where their legal rights and position in the UK was fragile and uncertain and therefore it has become even more important to create a piece of impact work that was dually beneficial. The independent Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) today released a report about the impacts of EU immigrant workers on the UK economy. Figure 2 - For example, see below the population that is resident in the UK who were Polish … “What leaving the European Union does enable us to do is say what I think the British people were very clear about: which is that they don’t want free movement to continue in the way that it has done in the past,” she told the BBC’s Andrew Marr Show in an interview broadcast on Sunday morning. BOSTON, UK — I drive out of London on the motorway to Cambridge. Immigration statistics, year ending September 2020. As well as more and more other foreigners. The number of Polish nationals living in the UK increased from around 69,000 in 2004 (when Poland joined the European Union) to around 853,000 in 2014. Migrant communities, including the Polish one, were subjected to xenophobic and racist attacks. Hundreds later participated in a ‘love bombing’ rally outside the shop to express their opposition to racism and their support of the shop owners. As well as more and more other foreigners. Why dont you polish slavic animals just leave my country and never bring your ugly racist smelly drunk asses again! 47% are opposed to further Muslim immigration, according to a survey conducted by the Chatham House Royal Institute of International affairs. It allows our most engaged readers to debate the big issues, share their own experiences, discuss real-world solutions, and more. “Next morning after the referendum I got a lot of messages with apologies from my British friends and colleagues”—says Marcin. Workers from the east now earn more at home than before. In all, the corps processed 114,000 workers and the EVW about 57,000 more. She is a member of the Migration Policy Program at the Institute of Public Affairs (IPA), a leading Polish think-tank and an independent center for policy research and analysis. Since Poland joined the European Union in 2004, and thus Polish people had a legal right to come and live and work in the UK, over 800,000 people have made the move from Poland to the UK. Polish is also the most common non-British nationality in the UK with 1 million Polish nationals resident in the UK in 2016. “Around ten different universities from across the UK and even one from Australia have contacted me already regarding Brexit, and, to be honest, I am too tired with the topic to think about it”—she explains. The UK was one of only three countries that allowed these new European Union migrants to come and work straight away … There are approximately 900,000 Polish nationals living in Britain, the largest group of foreign nationals in the UK, and Polish is the second most widely spoken language in Britain after English. 2.2 Population Changes in the United Kingdom before the 21 st Century. Since 2016, there has been a decrease in immigration for work; over the same period, immigration for study has been gradually increasing. Academic Mobility in Europe and its Transformative Potential, Call for Applications: Campus Editorial Committee, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/bulletins/ukpopulationbycountryofbirthandnationality/august2016, http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/brexit05.pdf, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Geo6/10-11/19, https://www.cer.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/attachments/pdf/2013/pb_imm_uk_27sept13-7892.pdf, http://www.referendumanalysis.eu/eu-referendum-analysis-2016/section-2-politics/rhetoric-of-excess/, https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmselect/cmfaff/545/545.pdf, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/brexit-eu-referendum-michael-dougan-leave-campaign-latest-a7115316.html, http://www.referendumanalysis.eu/eu-referendum-analysis-2016/section-4/mind-the-gap-the-language-of-prejudice-and-the-press-omissions-that-led-a-people-to-the-precipice/, http://www.biuletynmigracyjny.uw.edu.pl/55-grudzien-2016/brexit-pierwsze-reakcje-polakow-w-wielkiej-brytanii, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/559319/hate-crime-1516-hosb1116.pdf, https://www.cer.org.uk/publications/archive/report/2016/economic-consequences-leaving-eu-final-report-cer-commission-brexit, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/22/polish-uk-brexit-dont-think-many-will-stay-poland-immigration, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/brexit-latest-a7424396.html, http://www.money.pl/gospodarka/wiadomosci/artykul/brexit-praca-w-wielkiej-brytanii-polacy-w,136,0,2270600.html, http://www.polskieradio.pl/5/3/Artykul/1646991,Sondaz-po-Brexicie-ilu-Polakow-wroci-do-kraju, http://tvn24bis.pl/z-kraju,74/w-brytania-morawiecki-zachecal-studentow-do-powrotu-do-polski,720713.html, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2016/06/24/the-british-are-frantically-googling-what-the-eu-is-hours-after-voting-to-leave-it/?utm_term=.5aebc956861e. is, hours after voting the leave it,” The Washington Post, 24 June 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2016/06/24/the-british-are-frantically-googling-what-the-eu-is-hours-after-voting-to-leave-it/?utm_term=.5aebc956861e. The “undercurrent of negative attitudes against Poles” (23) that have been expressed in newspapers since Poland joined the EU have fueled a response from Polish newspapers in the UK. The immigration records we hold were originally created by the various government departments that recorded the arrival and existence of foreign nationals in Britain, as well those that formulated the government’s immigration policy. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? [xv] C. Geay, S. McNally, S. Telhaj, “Non-Native Speakers in the Classroom: What are the Effects on Pupil Performance?,” Economic Journal, Volume 123, Issue 570, 2013. They have invested a lot of effort in settling down and are not willing to easily abandon what they have built in the UK. Polish is also the most common non-British nationality in the UK with 1 million Polish nationals resident in the UK in 2016.[ii]. The killing and Mr Johnson’s reassurance comes after a dramatic increase in recorded anti-immigrant hate crimes following the EU referendum result, particularly in areas that voted strongly for Brexit. Back to table of contents . [19] - UK, Ireland ~ 2014; Looking for Polish immigration lawyer in Sydney [16] - Australia ~ 2017 [xiv] J. Wadsworth…, op.cit., p. 2., and J. Springford, S. Tilford, C. Odendahl, P. McCann, “The Economic Consequences of Leaving the EU: the final report of the CER on Brexit 2016,” Centre for European Reform, 21 April 2016, https://www.cer.org.uk/publications/archive/report/2016/economic-consequences-leaving-eu-final-report-cer-commission-brexit. Some researchers argue that the discourse of “taking back the UK” and “regaining control of immigration” was established in Britain’s collective memory in the years prior to the campaign. Between 2003 and 2010, the Polish-born population in the UK has risen from 75,000 to 532,000 (Rzepnikowska 2019). Boris Johnson has invited Polish people to come to Britain as immigrants, dismissing claims that the UK is lurching towards “xenophobia”. [xxii] Mateusz Morawiecki, Deputy Prime Minister of Poland and Minister of Development, argued: “You have to have optimistic assumptions in order for the reality to change”[xxiii]—but it seemed like he believed in magic spells to make people go back to their homeland. They did not understand what was going on during the campaign”—he adds. The community of 94,000 Poles lived in the UK even before 2004, the year when Poland joined the EU and Great Britain opened its labour market to all the new Central and East European Member States. First of all, if Poland were a bad country to live in, I wouldn’t live here. London is a welcoming city with no room for xenophobia, the Foreign Secretary said, Theresa May said British people wanted an end to freedom of movement in comments broadcast on Sunday, Demonstrators protest against an increase in post-ref racism at London's March for Europe in July 2016, These cards were found near a school in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, the day after the EU referendum. Poland was the most common country of birth for mothers born outside the UK, followed by Pakistan and India 1.6 Delimitations. Several things stand out about this migration. In fact, the roots of the Polish community in the UK date back to the 1940s. … Disappointment, shock, and uncertainty were among the most common feelings of the British Poles following the EU referendum. The existing Open Comments threads will continue to exist for those who do not subscribe to Independent Premium. Despite fears related to the increase in hate crime numbers following the EU referendum, and the uncertainty around their future residency status, immigrants from Poland will not abandon their established lives in the UK as willingly as the Brexit supporters would wish to see. Paulina Panus: “At the time of the referendum I just returned to the UK after an eight-month travel break. It is a bit strange but I could sense that we, the British Poles, were needed and unwanted at the same time. I had been living in the UK for six years before that break and it suddenly turned out that I could not apply for residency status because the maximum period you can spend abroad in order not to lose the continuity of your stay is three months. [xiv] As seen in school tests, Polish children work hard at school to catch up with UK-born kids[xv] while their parents work hard in offices, factories, and shops to support their families. And there are a lot of British people living here, some in cities, some in more rural locations. The suburbs blur past the window. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. To arrange an initial consultation about a legal issue relating to law in Poland, call our Polish speaking Solicitors on 033 0107 0109 or request a call back.. 13. This neo-Nazi sticker was spotted in Glasgow on June 26. Polish migration to the UK after 2004 has become one of the most significant movements in UK migration history – official numbers put the movement at over 600,000. Poland overtakes India as the most common country of birth for UK immigrants as new statistics show estimated net migration remains close to record levels. The number of Polish nationals living in the UK increased from around 69,000 in 2004 (when Poland joined the European Union) to around 853,000 in 2014. “There are still regions in the UK which have not recovered from the financial crisis yet”—says Marcin Wąs,[xii] a 37-year-old freelance photographer and filmmaker from London. “I do not think I could go back to Poland just like this and suddenly start a new life. [xvi] Check for example New Europeans’ #RightToStay campaign, https://neweuropeans.net. NB Please see an updated briefing on the topics discussed in this paper by clicking this link: 'The History of Immigration to the UK' 1. Polish migration to the UK post-2004. Some Polish think tanks are even more “optimistic” and talk about 250,000 Poles expected to be back. Please visit our dedicated Polish website at www.adwokat.co.uk to view the services that our expert lawyers specialise in. But some British Poles were not surprised, like Magda Widawska, a 30-year-old receptionist from London. There are now 695,000 Polish people in the UK, while Germany is home to 706,000. The number of EU citizens moving to the UK has decreased since the Brexit vote. Most You can also choose to be emailed when someone replies to your comment. Polish immigration to the Netherlands has steadily increased since Poland joined the EU, and now, an estimated 135,000 Polish people live in the country. Many Britons think of Polish immigration as a recent phenomenon. 27 November 2020 National Statistics Immigration statistics, year ending June 2020 second edition 12. The share of workers in the UK who were born abroad has increased over the past 15 years. And suddenly there was this uncertainty and fear of being forced to move countries again. In 2014–2016 she worked for a British charity in London in a project dedicated to Polish migrants, and voluntarily supported asylum seekers, refugees and victims of trafficking in human beings. Introduction. 14. “I could not recognise the country, which I had always praised for its tolerance and openness. The reassurance comes a day after hundreds of people marched through the Essex commuter town of Harlow in silent defiance and remembrance after the brutal killing of Polish national Arek Jozwik. The ambassador said only 27% of Poles living in the UK had submitted an application for settled status – an ‘alarmingly low level’. Six local teenagers have been arrested on suspicion of his killing, which police have said may have been racially motivated. The British Poles seem to be less concerned with how Brexit will affect the EU itself but such voices as Paulina’s can also be heard: “I do not know much about politics but I think that the UK had a lot of power in the EU. 1.5 Professional Significance of this Thesis. It will take some time until the EU will find a new power equilibrium.” Indeed, 2017 seems to be one of defining moments in the EU’s history. Now, even as the British Prime Minister Theresa May has finally triggered the article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty and kick-started Brexit, little is known about the future of EU citizens in the UK. [citation needed] Anti-Polish sentiment in the UK is often related to the issue of immigration. [i]It is estimated that around 911,000 UK residents are Polish-born, what accounts for 10 percent of the total foreign-born population of the country. A worker at this Romanian food shop was asleep upstairs at the time of this arson attack in Norwich on July 8, but escaped unharmed. The local farming and flower picking industry has boomed because land owners can now import vast numbers of agricultural laborers from Eastern Europe and pay them at minimum wage — or often much below. Students are asked to discuss the reasons that people migrate, write a poem about immigration and try to put themselves in the position of a recent immigrant. 12. What about the many Polish people setting up their businesses in the UK employing only EU A8 people directly from east european job market into the UK, isn’t this racial discrimination causing discord in areas outside London. “There was also this strange mood that I could sense even in my workplace, which is a private club for artists, businessmen, and journalists in London. “I think that we can expect great instability and it will considerably affect the UK economy”—says Paulina Panus. Immigration needs balance and when the balance us tipped everyone see’s what they see. [xxi] Moreover, according to a survey by Boston Consulting Group conducted among the participants of the Polish Economic Forum—a student conference, which took place at LSE in London on 5 March 2017—the interest in returning to Poland among Polish students of the best UK universities has dropped from 83 percent in 2016 to 75 percent in 2017. According to new data from Poland ‘s Central Statistics Office, the number of Poles in the UK has fallen by 98,000. You have to know how to do it and how to function, also economically, without the EU.” Over a longer term, the condition of UK’s economy after Brexit will certainly determine, for many British Poles, the rationale on whether to stay or move to other countries. By the end of 1950, members of the Polish forces and their dependents accounted for a net immigration to the UK of about 115,000 people. It might be surprising but not every British Pole thinks that the decision to leave the EU was wrong. Please be respectful when making a comment and adhere to our Community Guidelines. Roger Kershaw and Mark Pearsall, Immigrants and Aliens: A Guide to Sources on UK Immigration and Citizenship (The National Archives, 2004) List and Index Society, General Register Office list of non-parochial registers and records in the custody of the Registrar-General of births, deaths and marriages (List and Index Society, XXXXII, 1969) [x] “I was surprised by the result”—admits Łukasz Birecki[xi], a 35-year-old social worker from London. In 2015, Polish was the most common non-British nationality. [iii] For the full text of the Act see: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Geo6/10-11/19. A Polish grocery in west London. The Foreign Secretary is seeking to downplay a rising perception that Britain is xenophobic, Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profile. Below you can select a maximum of three countries or world regions to create your own graph that shows how that population has changed in the UK since 2004. Most of them are guest workers from the European Union contract labour program, as more Poles obtain have light industrial jobs. [xxv] See for example: B. Fung, “The British are frantically Googling what the E.U. If you lose such a powerful player, there is chaos. Fleeing the Communist government in Poland, many refused to return home, leading to the passing of the Polish Resettlement Act 1947, the UK’s first mass immigration law. Due to the sheer scale of this comment community, we are not able to give each post the same level of attention, but we have preserved this area in the interests of open debate. According to a survey by IBRIS—a Polish market and social research foundation—undertaken in June and July 2016, just 5.5 percent of British Poles were considering a return migration to Poland (of which 57.7 percent were aged 65 and above) while 12.1 percent of them were thinking about moving to another EU state—just like Łukasz Biercki who, if forced to move, would go to Sweden. The only difference is that Polish citizens will be tied to stay for only one year, thanks to a temporary non-renewable visa. [xviii] E. Benke, “The Poles looking to leave the UK after Brexit,” BBC, 28 October 2016, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-37787008. I worked on a one year project on the mental health of post-accession Polish migrants in the UK (‘Migration, Stress and Mental Health: An Exploratory Study of Post-accession Polish Immigrants to the United Kingdom’). This is how the metropolitan elite sees their country: a fast-forward of soot-encrusted terraces rushing past their cars as they pick up speed out of stucco London. The very same day dozens of Britons and other UK residents flooded the Association with thousands of flowers and “I’m sorry” cards. They had a kind of ‘referendum hangover,’ I guess.” Magda Widawska, in turn, describes her post-referendum morning at work: “I was witnessing two totally opposite situations—some people were apologizing to me, saying they were sorry and ashamed of the UK, while others were just extremely happy.”, Weeks after the referendum witnessed an unprecedented increase in hate crime incidents across the UK. Bulgaria and Romania curbs stay. It was especially apparent in poorer communities, which were most affected by the post-2004 immigration from the new EU Member States. Immigration: UK births to women born abroad reach record number. For example, the Polish Express Newspaper, sponsored a migrant workers strike in response to increased policy discussions against illegal immigration. Is uncertain future and living in a state of suspension going to force the British Poles back to Poland? The referendum campaign’s rhetoric was described by some academics as “divisive” and “uncivil,”[vi] and the campaign as such as “criminally irresponsible” and “guilty of dishonesty.”[vii] The research shows that the news coverage during the campaign was skewed in favour of Brexit while creating a climate of fear and danger. “I was scared”—confides Magda Widawska. 1.1 There have always been episodes of migration to Britain but, as this paper demonstrates, those episodes were small and demographically insignificant until the Second World War. All of the sudden there was ‘us’ and ‘them’”—says Paulina Panus. Agnieszka Kulesa is a political scientist, PhD candidate at the Warsaw School of Economics, the Collegium of Socio-Economics. Yet, for most of them, including Magda herself, the answer is “no.”. But the situation is not clear or easy for everyone. EU immigrant workers in the UK: five things we learned. [xxi] “Sondaż po Brexicie: ilu Polaków wróci do kraju?,” 24 July 2016, http://www.polskieradio.pl/5/3/Artykul/1646991,Sondaz-po-Brexicie-ilu-Polakow-wroci-do-kraju. ... Home / UK, Ireland / Polish immigration in UK Over the year, 609,000 people moved to the UK (immigration) and 397,000 people left the UK (emigration). So to be able to return in the United Kingdom, or even to be able to … 2 Nov 2007 #63. In fact, the roots of the Polish community in the UK date back to the 1940s. Nawet 200 tysięcy Polaków może wrócić do Polski,” 27 February 2017, http://www.money.pl/gospodarka/wiadomosci/artykul/brexit-praca-w-wielkiej-brytanii-polacy-w,136,0,2270600.html. [i] It is estimated that around 911,000 UK residents are Polish-born, what accounts for 10 percent of the total foreign-born population of the country. “People have houses, mortgages, families and friends here, and it is not that easy to leave it all. Read our full mailing list consent terms here, Mr Johnson told reporters at the conference: “London is the most welcoming, multicultural, happening city on earth – no disrespect to Warsaw – and there is no room for xenophobia.”. “One exception is the press, which goes back and forth about Brexit and the issue of EU immigrants’ rights. As I drive I remember how the writer J.G. And there are a lot of British people living here, some in cities, some in more rural locations. Unemployed and homeless people might just be forced to do so, while those with “global identity” might want to seek new opportunities in other EU states or even outside Europe. She also refused to confirm that Polish nationals resident in the UK would definitely be allowed to stay in Britain following Brexit – saying this would be contingent on British nationals resident elsewhere not being sent home. [xiii] On 27 August 2016, Arek Jóźwik, a Polish immigrant from Harlow, was attacked and beaten to death. “If you are poor and unhappy in your life, you are easy to manipulate. The rise in numbers of immigrants to NI over the past six years has been sudden and dramatic. all you do is increase binge drinking and bring your viruses with you! Many people are moving in the UK from Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Łódź and many other Polish cities, to get a new life or a new job. The National Archives is the archive of central government in the UK. According to research done by Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics, EU immigrants are better educated, more likely to work, and less likely to claim benefits than the UK-born residents. “I could have predicted the result of the EU referendum by observing all that noise in the media”—says Magda. [xxiv] Others think that it was not a serious referendum in the first place: “Taking into account the fact that the next day after the referendum the top question on Google was “What is the EU?”, I think that an average UK citizen does not know much about the Union”—says Marcin Wąs.[xxv]. Polish men in hoods, hang about on the street, smoking, talking wages in the flower picking industry. 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Immigration needs balance and when the balance us tipped everyone see’s what they have in. Fear of being forced to move countries again, creating an increased demand, which were most affected ” adds! Numbers of immigrants to NI over the past 15 years suddenly there was ‘ us and. Easy that you decide to leave and that ’ s it the independent migration Advisory Committee MAC. Until 1990—the Poles set up a government-in-exile in London Polish migration has been revealed the J.G. His Polish counterpart Witold Waszczykowski suspension going to force the British ship will sail off the EU Brexit affect. Nazi and Communist rule—from 1940 until 1990—the Poles set up a government-in-exile in London counterpart Waszczykowski. Is not that easy to manipulate that easy that you decide to book a flight. And are not willing to easily abandon what they see stay in the UK in 2016 from Kettering, was... 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New Europeans ’ # RightToStay campaign, http: //www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/Geo6/10-11/19 of economic justifications for their choice at... We could almost say this is the archive of Central government in the coming years it... Will be the most affected ” —she adds Stow area of town taxes than they take out welfare. Yoga trainer from Kettering, Brexit was regarded by some academics as a reliable source information... Affairs Committee analysis of Brexit was not a rational choice tysięcy Polaków może do... Xi ], Britain for polish immigrants in uk, England and Wales, 2015/2016 home. First three months of this year, thanks to a Survey conducted the...

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